DemoUpCARMA, led by ETH Zurich and funded by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) and the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN), is a pioneering initiative focused on showcasing and expanding CO2 Management solutions to achieve a net-zero Switzerland. Its primary objectives are to illustrate the application and expansion of two strategies leading to negative emissions:
CO2 utilization and permanent storage in primary and recycled concrete in Switzerland using a novel technology.
CO2 transport and permanent storage in a geological reservoir abroad.
DemoUpCARMA will evaluate the most effective configuration of these approaches and their potential for expansion, considering technological, financial, regulatory, political, and societal considerations in the medium- to long-term. As a piloting project, DemoUpCARMA has seen CO2 that has been captured in Switzerland transported and stored underground in basalt rich bedrock in Iceland and CO2 mineralized in recycled concrete aggregate here in Switzerland. Carbon capture use and storage (CCUS) is a primary strategy for reaching Swiss climate goals, as the use of CCS is integral in dealing with emissions from hard-to-abate industries such as cement, waste-to-energy, and chemicals and pharmaceuticals.
Sus.lab is the lead for the work package under this project that aims to comprehensively analyze policy strategies for ensuring public acceptance, securing financial investment, and ensuring economic viability of CCUS and CCTS solutions. It intends to present policymakers with a range of pathways to promote widespread adoption of these technologies, aligning with the Energy Perspectives 2050+ and Switzerland's net-zero goal by 2050. Additionally, the project seeks to establish robust monitoring, accounting, and reporting tools for CO2 emissions across CCUS and CCTS value chains. It will explore mechanisms for creating and monetizing emission reductions and removals, both domestically and abroad. The project will also develop frameworks for carbon credit and climate finance transactions to accelerate the implementation of CCUS and CCTS solutions. Furthermore, it aims to understand the financing requirements for CCUS/CCTS and how support policies can address their financial challenges on both a national and international scale. The project will investigate public and stakeholder opinions on storing or utilizing emissions domestically versus abroad, and how various support policies may influence public acceptance. Additionally, it will identify gaps in legal and regulatory frameworks related to CO2 capture, transportation, utilization, and storage, addressing issues such as long-term liability. Finally, the project will provide a comparative evaluation of regulatory pathways to facilitate the development of CCUS and CCTS chains, offering valuable insights to relevant stakeholders and experts.
As sus.lab we take part in the activities under a work package which aims to assess the potential for scaling up carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) and carbon capture, transport, and storage (CCTS) chains in both the near and long term. Initially, the focus will be on analyzing specific Swiss emitters from waste-to-energy, cement, and biogas sectors that may implement CCUS and CCTS as emission reduction solutions before 2030. This analysis will encompass the entire CO2 supply chain, including capture, liquefaction, transport, and storage in either concrete (domestic) or a geological reservoir (abroad). Given the near-term horizon, transportation will likely rely on trucks and trains. Following this, the project will explore the development and optimized integration of a CO2 network linked to a broader European infrastructure, serving various sectors including chemical, pharmaceutical, and life sciences. This network will incorporate Direct Air Capture (DAC) units, and their strategic placement in relation to operational CO2 storage hubs abroad will be examined. Lastly, the project will evaluate the efficient integration of post-combustion CO2 capture with waste-to-energy and cement plants, using specific reference points, and provide guidelines for extending the findings to other Swiss emitters in these sectors.